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U.S. and Hong Kong
 

United States-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992 (Enrolled as Agreed to or Passed by Both House and Senate)

S.1731

One Hundred Second Congress of the United States of America

AT THE SECOND SESSION

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Friday, the third day of January, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-two

An Act

To set forth the policy of the United States with respect to Hong Kong, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

This Act may be cited as the 'United States-Hong Kong Policy Act of 1992'.

SEC. 2. FINDINGS AND DECLARATIONS.

The Congress makes the following findings and declarations:

(1) The Congress recognizes that under the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration:

(A) The People's Republic of China and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have agreed that the People's Republic of China will resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong on July 1, 1997. Until that time, the United Kingdom will be responsible for the administration of Hong Kong.

(B) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, beginning on July 1, 1997, will continue to enjoy a high degree of autonomy on all matters other than defense and foreign affairs.

(C) There is provision for implementation of a 'one country, two systems' policy, under which Hong Kong will retain its current lifestyle and legal, social, and economic systems until at least the year 2047.

(D) The legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region will be constituted by elections, and the provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, as applied to Hong Kong, shall remain in force.

(E) Provision is made for the continuation in force of agreements implemented as of June 30, 1997, and for the ability of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to conclude new agreements either on its own or with the assistance of the Government of the People's Republic of China.

(2) The Congress declares its wish to see full implementation of the provisions of the Joint Declaration.

(3) The President has announced his support for the policies and decisions reflected in the Joint Declaration.

(4) Hong Kong plays an important role in today's regional and world economy. This role is reflected in strong economic, cultural, and other ties with the United States that give the United States a strong interest in the continued vitality, prosperity, and stability of Hong Kong.

(5) Support for democratization is a fundamental principle of United States foreign policy. As such, it naturally applies to United States policy toward Hong Kong. This will remain equally true after June 30, 1997.

(6) The human rights of the people of Hong Kong are of great importance to the United States and are directly relevant to United States interests in Hong Kong. A fully successful transition in the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong must safeguard human rights in and of themselves. Human rights also serve as a basis for Hong Kong's continued economic prosperity.

SEC. 3. DEFINITIONS.

For purposes of this Act--

(1) the term 'Hong Kong' means, prior to July 1, 1997, the British Dependent Territory of Hong Kong, and on and after July 1, 1997, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China;

(2) the term 'Joint Declaration' means the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, done at Beijing on December 19, 1984; and

(3) the term 'laws of the United States' means provisions of law enacted by the Congress.

TITLE I--POLICY

SEC. 101. BILATERAL TIES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND HONG KONG.

It is the sense of the Congress that the following, which are based in part on the relevant provisions of the Joint Declaration, should be the policy of the United States with respect to its bilateral relationship with Hong Kong:

(1) The United States should play an active role, before, on, and after July 1, 1997, in maintaining Hong Kong's confidence and prosperity, Hong Kong's role as an international financial center, and the mutually beneficial ties between the people of the United States and the people of Hong Kong.

(2) The United States should actively seek to establish and expand direct bilateral ties and agreements with Hong Kong in economic, trade, financial, monetary, aviation, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, sport, and other appropriate areas.

(3) The United States should seek to maintain, after June 30, 1997, the United States consulate-general in Hong Kong, together with other official and semi-official organizations, such as the United States Information Agency American Library.

(4) The United States should invite Hong Kong to maintain, after June 30, 1997, its official and semi-official missions in the United States, such as the Hong Kong Economic & Trade Office, the Office of the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, and the Hong Kong Tourist Association. The United States should invite Hong Kong to open and maintain other official or semi-official missions to represent Hong Kong in those areas in which Hong Kong is entitled to maintain relations on its own, including economic, trade, financial, monetary, aviation, shipping, communications, tourism, cultural, and sport areas.

(5) The United States should recognize passports and travel documents issued after June 30, 1997, by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

(6) The resumption by the People's Republic of China of the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong after June 30, 1997, should not affect treatment of Hong Kong residents who apply for visas to visit or reside permanently in the United States, so long as such treatment is consistent with the Immigration and Nationality Act.

SEC. 102. PARTICIPATION IN MULTILATERAL ORGANIZATIONS, RIGHTS UNDER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS, AND TRADE STATUS.

It is the sense of the Congress that the following, which are based in part on the relevant provisions of the Joint Declaration, should be the policy of the United States with respect to Hong Kong after June 30, 1997:

(1) The United States should support Hong Kong's participation in all appropriate multilateral conferences, agreements, and organizations in which Hong Kong is eligible to participate.

(2) The United States should continue to fulfill its obligations to Hong Kong under international agreements, so long as Hong Kong reciprocates, regardless of whether the People's Republic of China is a party to the particular international agreement, unless and until such obligations are modified or terminated in accordance with law.

(3) The United States should respect Hong Kong's status as a separate customs territory, and as a contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, whether or not the People's Republic of China participates in the latter organization.

SEC. 103. COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND HONG KONG.

It is the sense of the Congress that the following, which are based in part on the relevant provisions of the Joint Declaration, are and should continue after June 30, 1997, to be the policy of the United States with respect to commerce between the United States and Hong Kong:

(1) The United States should seek to maintain and expand economic and trade relations with Hong Kong and should continue to treat Hong Kong as a separate territory in economic and trade matters, such as import quotas and certificates of origin.

(2) The United States should continue to negotiate directly with Hong Kong to conclude bilateral economic agreements.

(3) The United States should continue to treat Hong Kong as a territory which is fully autonomous from the United Kingdom and, after June 30, 1997, should treat Hong Kong as a territory which is fully autonomous from the People's Republic of China with respect to economic and trade matters.

(4) The United States should continue to grant the products of Hong Kong nondiscriminatory trade treatment (commonly referred to as 'most-favored-nation status') by virtue of Hong Kong's membership in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

(5) The United States should recognize certificates of origin for manufactured goods issued by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

(6) The United States should continue to allow the United States dollar to be freely exchanged with the Hong Kong dollar.

(7) United States businesses should be encouraged to continue to operate in Hong Kong, in accordance with applicable United States and Hong Kong law.

(8) The United States should continue to support access by Hong Kong to sensitive technologies controlled under the agreement of the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (commonly referred to as 'COCOM') for so long as the United States is satisfied that such technologies are protected from improper use or export.

(9) The United States should encourage Hong Kong to continue its efforts to develop a framework which provides adequate protection for intellectual property rights.

(10) The United States should negotiate a bilateral investment treaty directly with Hong Kong, in consultation with the Government of the People's Republic of China.

(11) The change in the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong should not affect ownership in any property, tangible or intangible, held in the United States by any Hong Kong person.

SEC. 104. TRANSPORTATION.

It is the sense of the Congress that the following, which are based in part on the relevant provisions of the Joint Declaration, should be the policy of the United States after June 30, 1997, with respect to transportation from Hong Kong:

(1) Recognizing Hong Kong's position as an international transport center, the United States should continue to recognize ships and airplanes registered in Hong Kong and should negotiate air service agreements directly with Hong Kong.

(2) The United States should continue to recognize ships registered by Hong Kong.

(3) United States commercial ships, in accordance with applicable United States and Hong Kong law, should remain free to port in Hong Kong.

(4) The United States should continue to recognize airplanes registered by Hong Kong in accordance with applicable laws of the People's Republic of China.

(5) The United States should recognize licenses issued by the Hong Kong to Hong Kong airlines.

(6) The United States should recognize certificates issued by the Hong Kong to United States air carriers for air service involving travel to, from, or through Hong Kong which does not involve travel to, from, or through other parts of the People's Republic of China.

(7) The United States should negotiate at the appropriate time directly with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, acting under authorization from the Government of the People's Republic of China, to renew or amend all air service agreements existing on June 30, 1997, and to conclude new air service agreements affecting all flights to, from, or through the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region which do not involve travel to, from, or through other parts of the People's Republic of China.

(8) The United States should make every effort to ensure that the negotiations described in paragraph (7) lead to procompetitive air service agreements.

SEC. 105. CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGES.

It is the sense of the Congress that the following, which are based in part on the relevant provisions of the Joint Declaration, are and should continue after June 30, 1997, to be the policy of the United States with respect to cultural and educational exchanges with Hong Kong:

(1) The United States should seek to maintain and expand United States-Hong Kong relations and exchanges in culture, education, science, and academic research. The United States should encourage American participation in bilateral exchanges with Hong Kong, both official and unofficial.

(2) The United States should actively seek to further United States-Hong Kong cultural relations and promote bilateral exchanges, including the negotiating and concluding of appropriate agreements in these matters.

(3) Hong Kong should be accorded separate status as a full partner under the Fulbright Academic Exchange Program (apart from the United Kingdom before July 1, 1997, and apart from the People's Republic of China thereafter), with the continuation or establishment of a Fulbright Commission or functionally equivalent mechanism.

(4) The United States should actively encourage Hong Kong residents to visit the United States on nonimmigrant visas for such purposes as business, tourism, education, and scientific and academic research, in accordance with applicable United States and Hong Kong laws.

(5) Upon the request of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong, the Librarian of Congress, acting through the Congressional Research Service, should seek to expand educational and informational ties with the Council.

TITLE II--THE STATUS OF HONG KONG IN UNITED STATES LAW

SEC. 201. CONTINUED APPLICATION OF UNITED STATES LAW.

(a) IN GENERAL- Notwithstanding any change in the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the laws of the United States shall continue to apply with respect to Hong Kong, on and after July 1, 1997, in the same manner as the laws of the United States were applied with respect to Hong Kong before such date unless otherwise expressly provided by law or by Executive order under section 202.

(b) INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS- For all purposes, including actions in any court in the United States, the Congress approves the continuation in force on and after July 1, 1997, of all treaties and other international agreements, including multilateral conventions, entered into before such date between the United States and Hong Kong, or entered into before such date between the United States and the United Kingdom and applied to Hong Kong, unless or until terminated in accordance with law. If in carrying out this title, the President determines that Hong Kong is not legally competent to carry out its obligations under any such treaty or other international agreement, or that the continuation of Hong Kong's obligations or rights under any such treaty or other international agreement is not appropriate under the circumstances, such determination shall be reported to the Congress in accordance with section 301.

SEC. 202. PRESIDENTIAL ORDER.

(a) PRESIDENTIAL DETERMINATION- On or after July 1, 1997, whenever the President determines that Hong Kong is not sufficiently autonomous to justify treatment under a particular law of the United States, or any provision thereof, different from that accorded the People's Republic of China, the President may issue an Executive order suspending the application of section 201(a) to such law or provision of law.

(b) FACTOR FOR CONSIDERATION- In making a determination under subsection (a) with respect to the application of a law of the United States, or any provision thereof, to Hong Kong, the President should consider the terms, obligations, and expectations expressed in the Joint Declaration with respect to Hong Kong.

(c) PUBLICATION IN FEDERAL REGISTER- Any Executive order issued under subsection (a) shall be published in the Federal Register and shall specify the law or provision of law affected by the order.

(d) TERMINATION OF SUSPENSION- An Executive order issued under subsection (a) may be terminated by the President with respect to a particular law or provision of law whenever the President determines that Hong Kong has regained sufficient autonomy to justify different treatment under the law or provision of law in question. Notice of any such termination shall be published in the Federal Register.

SEC. 203. RULES AND REGULATIONS.

The President is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as the President may deem appropriate to carry out this Act.

SEC. 204. CONSULTATION WITH CONGRESS.

In carrying out this title, the President shall consult appropriately with the Congress.

TITLE III--REPORTING PROVISIONS

SEC. 301. REPORTING REQUIREMENT.

Not later than March 31, 1993, March 31, 1995, March 31, 1997, March 31, 1998, March 31, 1999, and March 31, 2000, the Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate a report on conditions in Hong Kong of interest to the United States. This report shall cover (in the case of the initial report) the period since the date of enactment of this Act or (in the case of subsequent reports) the period since the most recent report pursuant to this section and shall describe--

(1) significant developments in United States relations with Hong Kong, including a description of agreements that have entered into force between the United States and Hong Kong;

(2) other matters, including developments related to the change in the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong, affecting United States interests in Hong Kong or United States relations with Hong Kong;

(3) the nature and extent of United States-Hong Kong cultural, education, scientific, and academic exchanges, both official and unofficial;

(4) the laws of the United States with respect to which the application of section 201(a) has been suspended pursuant to section 202(a) or with respect to which such a suspension has been terminated pursuant to section 202(d), and the reasons for the suspension or termination, as the case may be;

(5) treaties and other international agreements with respect to which the President has made a determination described in the last sentence of section 201(b), and the reasons for each such determination;

(6) significant problems in cooperation between Hong Kong and the United States in the area of export controls;

(7) the development of democratic institutions in Hong Kong; and

(8) the nature and extent of Hong Kong's participation in multilateral forums.

SEC. 302. SEPARATE PART OF COUNTRY REPORTS.

Whenever a report is transmitted to the Congress on a country-by-country basis there shall be included in such report, where applicable, a separate subreport on Hong Kong under the heading of the state that exercises sovereignty over Hong Kong. The reports to which this section applies include the reports transmitted under--

(1) sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (relating to human rights);

(2) section 181 of the Trade Act of 1974 (relating to trade barriers); and

(3) section 2202 of the Export Enhancement Act of 1988 (relating to economic policy and trade practices).

Speaker of the House of Representatives.

Vice President of the United States and

President of the Senate.